Shoplifting is clearly a psychological issue for many people. Shoplifting for most individuals is rarely about greed or poverty. It’s about people struggling with their own personal conflicts and needs.

The single largest psychological factor found in approximately 1/3 of shoplifters studied is “depression”. This helps to explain why so many individuals steal from stores on their birthday and/or around holiday times.

The more intense form of shoplifting is classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as an “Impulse Disorder” known as Kleptomania. For this classification, the patient must meet the following five criteria to justify this diagnosis.

  1. Recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal objects that are not needed for personal use or their monetary value.
  2. Increasing sense of tension immediately before committing the theft.
  3. Pleasure or relief at the time of committing the theft.
  4. Stealing is not committed to express anger or vengeance and is not in response to a delusion or hallucination.
  5. The stealing is not better accounted for by Conduct Disorder, a Manic Episode, or Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Today, kleptomania is considered far more prevalent than originally believed.

The purpose of this section on our website is to help individuals, family members, therapists and researchers better understand this common psychological issue by continually providing an updated reference to a variety of published psychological studies (most current first), with a brief summary of

Findings or conclusions, when available. In addition, NASP has posted and will continually post on its website, a variety of articles on shoplifting which you can read by clicking on “Articles” in this National Learning and Resource Center.

To search for a study abstract, review the full study or seek other psychological studies, you may access the following common websites:

You may be pleased to know that NASP uses these and other psychological studies to develop and update its various assessments and programs. Here are relevant studies we selected which may interest you.

Selected Studies Found In Psychological, Psychiatric and Therapeutic Journals and Publications.

1. The Devil Made Me Do It: Use Of Neutralizations By Shoplifters.
Authors: Paul Cromwell/Quint Thurman, Wichita State U, Wichita KS,
Southwest Texas State U, San Marcos, TX; Deviant Behavior;
Nov-Dec 2003; Vol. 24(6) p. 535-550.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Interviews with 137 apprehended shoplifters revealed widespread use of techniques of neutralizations, where deviants must neutralize moral prescriptions either before the crime is committed or by after-the-fact rationalizations.

2. Consumer Misbehavior: An Exploratory Study of Shoplifting.
Author: Michele Tonglet, U College Northampton, School of Law & Accountancy, Northampton, England; Journal of Consumer Behavior;
Jun 2002; Vol.1(4); p. 336-354.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Adults and teenagers form belief systems that amount to rational intentions in the decision to shoplift.
b. The decision to shoplift is influenced by pro-shoplifting attitudes, social factors, opportunities for shoplifting and perceptions of low risks of apprehension.

3. A Psychological Examination of First-Time Apprehended Shoplifting Offenders: An empirical Investigation of Cupchik’s Loss- substitution-by-stealing Hypothesis. (Will Cupchik).
Author: Matthew Douglas Geyer, Spalding U, USA; Dissertation Abstracts International; Section B The Sciences & Engineering; Aug. 2001; Vol. 62(B); p. 1077.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Hypothesizes that shoplifting for most offenders is due to psychological factions which are related to the individual experiencing a loss.
b. Among 116 first-time shoplifting offenders, many did experience loss states prior to their shoplifting offenses and the study results did provide evidence of psychopathology on each of the clinical scales of the SCL-90-R.

4. Sensation Seeking As A Predictor Of Positive & Negative Risk Behavior Among Adolescents.
Authors: Ellen Beate Hansen/Gunnar Breivik, Norwegian U of Sports & Physical Education, Oslo, Norway; Personality & Individual Differences; Mar. 2001; Vol. 30(4); p. 627-640.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Results indicate a strong relationship between sensation seeking and risk taking behavior among 360 12 to 16 year old students in Norway.

5. Anxiety, Significant Losses, Depression, and Irrational Beliefs in First-offense Shoplifters.
Authors: Yves Lamontagne/Richard Boyer/Celine Hetu/Celine Lacerte- Lamontagne, U Montreal, Dept. of Psychiatry, Montreal, PQ, Canada; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry; Feb. 2000; Vol. 45(1); p. 64-66.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Men and women were equally likely to be arrested for shoplifting,
b. Depression, but not anxiety, was the most common psychiatric disorder associated with shoplifting.
c. Among the 106 adult first-offender shoplifters studied, the authors suggest two categories of shoplifters: those who shoplift through rational choice and those for whom shoplifting is a response to depression or leads to the fulfillment of some psychological needs.

6. Comparison of Shoplifting Behaviours In Patients With Eating Disorders, Psychiatric Control Subjects, & Undergraduate Control Subjects.
Authors: Elliot M. Goldner/Josie Geller/ C. Laird Birmingham/ Ronald A. Remick, U British Columbia, Dept. Of Psychiatry, Vancouver, BC Canada; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry; Jun. 2000; Vol. 45(5);
p. 471-475.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Study consisted of three groups of 176 women – 48 with anorexia nervosa, bulimia or other eating disorder; 46 inpatient and outpatient psychiatric patients; 82 undergraduate controls.
b. Across all three groups, shoplifting was associated with low self- esteem, elevated depression and purging behaviors at the time of the assessment.

7. Shoplifting: A Review Of The Literature.
Authors: Therese Krasnovsky/Robert C. Lane, Nova Southeastern U, Center for Psychological Studies, Ft. Lauderdale, FL; Aggression & Violent Behavior; Fall 1998; Vol. 3(3); p. 219-235.

8. Women Who Shoplift.
Author: Jane Knowles, West Berkshire Psychotherapy Service, England; A practical Guide To Forensic Psychotherapy; 1997; p. 210-215.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Discusses the psychopathology and group and individual psychodynamic psychotherapeutic treatment of women who shoplift.

9. Kleptomania-like Behaviour & Psychosocial Characteristics Among Shoplifters.
Authors: Elina Sarasalo/Bo Bergman/Janos Toth, Karolinska Inst. Huddington Hosp, Institution of Clinical Neuroscience & Family Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden; Legal & Criminological Psychology; Feb. 1997;
Vol. 2(Part 1); p. 1-10.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Suggests that features of kleptomania-like behavior may be common among ordinary shoplifters but all the diagnostic criteria according to the DSM-IV are rarely fulfilled.
b. Among the 50 shoplifters studied that exhibited kleptomania-like behavior, many did not feel to be themselves during the crime, indicating dissociative-like experiences, which have been described in kleptomania and compulsive buying.
c. In cases of compulsive and ego-dystonic shoplifting, the educational program developed by Shoplifters Anonymous may be a better alternative to fines.

10. Everyone Does It, But Who’s To Blame: Adolescents’ Constructions & Reconstructions of Shoplifting.
Authors: Jeanette Lawrence/Vanessa Heinze, U Melbourne, Parkville, VIC Australia; Socio-genetic Perspectives on Internalization; 1997; p. 45-73.

11. Why Honest People Shoplift or Commit Other Acts of Theft: Assessment & Treatment of ‘typical theft offenders’.
Author: Will Cupchik, Private Practice, Ontario Canada; 1997; p. 356 xix.

12. The Kleptomanias & Female Criminality.
Author: George Zavitzianos, Canadian Psychoanalytic Inst., Montreal, PQ, Canada; Sexual Dynamics Of Anti-Social Behavior (2nd ed.); 1997;
p. 132-157.

Findings or conclusions:

a. The author explores why the need to steal arises, examines its irresistible and repetitive nature despite the possible consequences, discusses the symbolic significance attached to both the act of stealing and the object stolen and examines perverse forms of kleptomania.

13. Effects Of Moral Cognitions & Consumer Emotions On Shoplifting Intentions.
Authors: Barry J. Babin/Laurie A. Babin, U of Southern Mississippi, Dept. of Marketing & Finance, MS; Psychology & Marketing; Dec 1996;
p. 785-802.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Emotions are important in explaining the aberrant consumer act of shoplifting, especially among adolescents.
b. Among 54 adults, their behavioral intentions to shoplift were affected by their moral beliefs, with attitude toward the act of shoplifting serving as a partial mediator of these effects.

14. Explorations & Implications Of Aberrant Consumer Behavior.
Authors: Michael C. Budden/Thomas F. Griffin III, Auburn U, Montgomery, AL; Psychology & Marketing; Dec 1996; Vol. 13(8); p. 739-740.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Forms of aberrant and dysfunctional consumer behavior include, but are not limited to, shoplifting, credit misuse and abuse, compulsive buying, purchase of illegal products, illegal market transactions, misuse of products, fraudulent return of merchandise, fraudulent requests for warranty service, purchase of counterfeit products, violation of license agreements, gambling and other addictive behaviors.

15. Study On Juvenile Shoplifters: Their Life Perceptions & Consciousness While Committing Crimes.
Authors: Sumio Tanaka/Naoko Tanaka, Yachiyo International U, Japan; Japanese Journal of Criminal Psychology; 1996; Vol. 34(1) p. 1-16.

Findings or conclusions:

a. 255 juveniles (ages under 13 to 19) arrested for shoplifting.
b. Questions about “life perception” (social values) revealed:
- inclination toward deviant behavior
- defective concept of ownership
- inability to distinguish study from play
- commitment to deviant social code of peer group
c. Questions about “consciousness” (motivational self-awareness) revealed:
- making excuses
- predicting punishment
- displaying emotional emission
- showing short-circuited thinking.

16. Considerations On The Dynamics Of Fraud & Shoplifting In Adult Female Offenders.
Authors: Renee Fugere/Andrea D’Elia/Robert Philippe, McGill Clinic in Forensic Psychiatry, Montreal, PQ, Canada; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry; Apr. 1995; Vol. 40(3); p. 150-153.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Compares 20 adult female shoplifting and fraudulent behavior offenders, whose first offense occurred in mid-life.
b. These women shared an unresolved mourning or loss in the context of high stress and depression, and a marriage to a dominant, authoritarian male that reproduced the father relationship and established a conflictual dynamic.
c. Fraud and shoplifting in these women may be seen as a depressive equivalent.

17. Exploring Teenage Shoplifting Behavior: A Choice & Constraint Approach.
Author: Lucia Lo, York U, Dept. of Geography, Toronto, ON Canada;
Environment & Behavior; Sep. 1994; Vol. 26(5); p. 613-639.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Studied 204 Canadian 9th and 12th graders.
b. The tendency to shoplift was not related to socioeconomic variables.
c. Teenagers appear to shoplift for fun and thrills, with peer pressure possibly having some influence.

18. Shoplifting & Mental Illness.
Authors: Yves Lamontagne/Normand Carpentier/Celine Hetu/Celine Lacerte-Lamontage, Fernand Seguin Research Center, Montreal, PQ, Canada; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry; Jun 1994; Vol. 39(5);
p. 300-302.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Evaluated the prevalence of mental illness and the use of medication, alcohol and drugs on 1,649 persons convicted of shoplifting.
b. Only 3.2% of cases involved mentally ill patients but closer links found between shoplifting and affective disorders, alcoholism and drug addiction.

19. Social Influences On Adolescent Shoplifting: Theory, Evidence, & Implications for the Retail Industry.
Authors: Anthony D. Cox/Dena Cox/Ronald D. Anderson/George P. Moschis; Indiana U School of Business, Indianapolis, IN; Journal Of Retailing; Summer 1993; Vol. 69(2); p. 234-246.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Self-administered questionnaires to 1,534 adolescents suggest that shoplifting was strongly influenced by their friend’s shoplifting behavior, their attachment to their parents and their own beliefs regarding the morality of their behavior.

20. Classification of Shoplifters By Cluster Analysis.
Authors: Frank J. McShane/Barrie A. Noonan, U Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada: International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; Spring 1993; Vol. 37(1); p. 20-40.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Results among 75 suspected shoplifters suggest that psychosocial stressors provide a useful basis for classifying shoplifters and that identity and perception needs should be addressed in any treatment program oriented to reduce recidivism.

21. Shoplifting in Bulimia Nervosa.
Authors: James E. Mitchell/Linda Fletcher/Lynn Gibeau/Richard L. Pyle;
et al, U Minnesota Hosp. Dept. of Psychiatry Eating Disorder Program, Minneapolis, MN; Comprehensive Psychiatry; Sep-Oct. 1992; Vol. 33(5); p. 342-345.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Comparison of shoplifting patterns among 27 bulimic and 25 non- bulimic shoplifters revealed that bulimic shoplifters often stole food in addition to other items.

22. Evaluating A Diversion Program For First-time Shoplifters.
Authors: David Royse/Steven A. Buck, U Kentucky, College of Social
Work, Lexington, KY; Journal of Offender Rehabilitation; 1991;
Vol. 17(1-2) p.147-158.

Findings or conclusions:

a. A criminal justice diversion program was successful in reducing subsequent arrests for shoplifting.
b. Subjects who did not participate or did not complete the program had re-arrests six times higher.

23. Personal Meaning In The Lives Of A Shoplifting Population.
Authors: Frank J. McShane/John Lawless/Barrie A. Noonan; International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; Fall 1991;
Vol. 35(3); p. 190-204.

Findings or conclusions:

a. 70 apprehended shoplifters (aged 18-88) compared to 70 undergraduate non-shoplifters.
b. Shoplifters were more likely to lack clear purpose in life, to live below the poverty level, to be socially isolated and not to perceive psychological stressors than non-shoplifters.

24. Predicting Dishonest Actions Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior.
Authors: Lisa Beck/Icek Ajzen, U Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; Journal Of Research In Personality; Sep. 1991; Vol. 25(3); p. 285-301.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Questionnaire administered to 146 college students to predict dishonest actions.

25. The Relation of Motivation & Gender to The Personality Dynamics & Emotional Experience Of Shoplifters.
Author: Lisa R. Yufit, California School of Professional Psychology- Berkeley, Alameda, CA; Dissertation Abstracts International; Feb 1991; Vol. 51(8-B); p. 4072.

26. Clinical Assessment & Intervention With Shoplifters.
Authors: Sanford Schwartz/Herman V. Wood, Virginia Commonwealth U School of Social Work, Richmond, VA; Social Work; May, 1991; Vol. 36(3) p. 234-238.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Presents a typology to guide social work assessment of, and intervention with, shoplifters.
b. Typology addressed five specific motivational factors:
- entitlement
- addiction
- peer pressure
- stress
- impulsiveness

27. When Consumer Behavior Goes Bad: An Investigation of Adolescent Shoplifting.
Authors: Dena Cox/Anthony D. Cox/George P. Moschis, Indiana U School of Business, Indianapolis, IN; Journal of Consumer Research; Sep. 1990; Vol. 17(2); p. 149-159.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Surveyed 1,692 7th-12th graders concerning shoplifting behavior, family occupational status, perceived reasons for adolescent shoplifting and rule-breaking behavior.
b. Shoplifting rose steadily between 7th and 10th grades and declined thereafter.
c. Findings contradict some stereotypes concerning the typical shoplifter.

28. A Structured Group Format For First Offense Shoplifters.
Authors: John W. MacDevitt/Gerard D. Kedzierzawski, Northern Michigan U, Counseling Center, Marquette, MI; International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; Sep. 1990; Vol. 34(2); p. 155-164.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Describes a psycho-educational group treatment for first-offender shoplifters that is built around the notion of precipitating stressors.
b. Only 5% of shoplifters who participated in the program were re- arrested in the county for shoplifting over 8 years.

29. Rational vs. Non-rational Shoplifting Types: The Implications For Loss Prevention Strategies.
Authors: Gregory R. Schlueter/Francis C. O’Neal/JoAnn Hickey/Gloria L. Seiler, Norwich U. Northfield, VT; International Journal of Offence Therapy & Comparative Criminology; Dec 1989; Vol. 33(3); p. 227-239.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Non-rational type shoplifters pose a significant threat to store security since, they do not consider the possibilities of apprehension and once apprehended do not change their attitudes toward shoplifting.

30. Economic Motivators For Shoplifting.
Authors: JoAnn Ray/Katherine H. Briar, Eastern Washington U, Inland Empire School of Social Work & Human Services. US; Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare; Dec 1988; Vol. 15(4); p 177-189.

Findings or conclusions:

a. In this study of 200 court records and 382 self-reports, shoplifters were more likely to have lower family income, be unemployed and believe that economic need causes shoplifting.
b. In both men and women, psychological and social stresses appear to be related to shoplifting.

31. Perception Of College Students’ Motives For Shoplifting.
Authors: Castellano B. Turner/Sheldon Cashdan, U Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; Psychological Reports; June 1988; Vol. 62(3); p. 855-862.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Motivational patterns for shoplifting among 241 female and 246 male college students revealed poverty and self-indulgence is the most prevalent motivators offered.
b. Other motivators related to thrill/risk and challenge/fun.
c. Revenge or diffusion of responsibility also played a significant role.

32. Clinical Perspectives On Elderly First-Offender Shoplifters.
Authors: Gary S. Moak/Benn Zimmer/Elliott M. Stein, U Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA; Hospital & Community Psychiatry; Jun. 1988; Vol. 39(6); p. 648-651.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Suggests that first-offense shoplifting among people over the age of 60 may be due less to economic hardship and more to psychiatric disorder.

33. Imaginal Desensitization: A Cost Effective Treatment In Two Shoplifters And A Binge Eater Resistant To Previous Therapy.
Authors: Nathaniel McConaghy/Alex Blaszczynski, Prince Of Wales Hosp. Psychiatry Unit, Randwick, NSW, Australia; Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry; Mar. 1988; Vol. 22(1); p. 78-82.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Three shoplifters responded to a one-week treatment with imaginal desensitization after having failed to respond to prolonged interpretative psychotherapy.

34. Psychodynamics & Interpersonal Effects Of Juvenile Shoplifters Arrested For The First Time.
Author: Gisele J. Renson, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, CA; Dissertation Abstracts International; Jan. 1988; Vol. 48(7-B); p. 2107.

35. Factors Influencing Shoplifting Activity Among Adult Women.
Author: Caryn B. Horowitz, U Delaware, US; Dissertation Abstracts International; Mar. 1987; Vol. 47(9-1); p. 3568-3569.

36. Kleptomania as Risk-Taking Behavior In Response To Depression.
Author: David A. Fishbain, University of Miami, FL; American Journal of Psychotherapy; 1987; Vol. 41(4); p.598-603.

Findings or conclusions:

a. In the case of a 57-year-old woman, kleptomania was risk-taking behavior in response to depression.
b. Experienced sexual satisfaction from being caught.

37. The Techniques of Neutralization: An Analysis of Predisposing and Situation Factors.
Authors: Robert Agnew/Ardith A. Peters, Emory University; Criminal Justice & Behavior; 1986; Vol. 13(1) p. 81-97.

Findings or conclusions:

a. 75% of students would feel “very guilty” for shoplifting.
b. 48% of students would feel “very guilty” for cheating on exam.
c. 5% of students who disapprove of shoplifting had shoplifted in the past year.
d. Students’ acceptance of rationalizations for shoplifting only occur when the student encounters a situation where the rationalization is applicable but this only applies to students who would feel “very guilty” about shoplifting.

38. Benzodiazepines and Shoplifting.
Authors: Richard Williams/J. Thomas Dalby, University Calgary Medical School, Canada; Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; 1986; Vol. 30(1) p. 35-39.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Drugs can encourage shoplifting behavior by reducing inhibitions.
b. Use of drugs may be a factor in causing repeat shoplifting.

39. The Influence of Psycho-Social Factors on Non-Sensical Shoplifting.
Author: Elizabeth Yates; Metropolitan Toronto Ministry of Correctional Services, Islington, Ontario, Canada; Int’l Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; 1986; Vol. 30(3) p. 203-211.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Shoplifters steal simply to get something for nothing.
b. A noted lack of self esteem and generally less assertive individuals.
c. No evidence of mental illness.
d. Evidence of childhood stress, present family conflict or depression often associated with social isolation.
e. Stress, primarily family or marital, most frequently precedes shoplifting occurrence, and is often accumulated vs. isolated.
f. Treatment programs should focus on the management of stress and depression, assertiveness training and increased socialization.

40. A Study of Rural and Suburban Teenage Awareness of and Attitudes Toward Shoplifting As Related To Demographic Characteristics.
Author: Janet M. Luttrell; Texas Woman’s University; Dissertation Abstracts International; 1985; Vol. 46(11-A) 3272.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Among teenagers, higher awareness levels reduces propensity to shoplift.
b. Teenage shoplifters most likely to be:
- 13 to 14 yrs. of age
- male
- socially inactive
- employed part-time
- from suburban home with limited income

41. A Case of Kleptomania Treated By Covert Sensitation.
Author: John H. Glover, Stratheden Hosp., Cupar, Scotland; British Journal of Clinical Psychology; 1985; Vol. 24(3) p.213-214.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Shoplifted daily for 14 years.
b. Resentment against husband, job, lifestyle.
c. Treatment consisted of covert sensitization with imagery of nausea and vomiting. Improvement within 8 weeks. 19 months after completion of covert sensitization only 1 relapse.
d. Patient more cheerful, confident and socially outgoing.

42. The Twelfth Shopper: A Description and Gender Comparison Of Shoplifting In Spokane, Washington.
Author: Joann E. Ray, University Washington; Dissertation Abstracts International; 1984; Vol. 44(8-A) p. 2583-2584.

Findings or conclusions:

a. 34 of 382 (8.9% or 1 in 11 shoppers) adults admitted shoplifting during the past year.
b. Perceived the significant evidence of:
- stress
- depression
- economic problems
- negative attitudes
- social isolation

43. Relief of Diazepam-Withdrawal Syndrome By Shoplifting.
Author: Jeremy Coid, Maudsley Hospital, London England; British Journal of Psychiatry; 1984; Vol. 145; p. 552-554.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Shoplifting is a “relief mechanism” for depression, anxiety.
b. 5 to 15% of shoplifters are “mentally abnormal”.
c. Shoplifting may represent the gratification of repressed sexual wishes.

44. Irrational Beliefs of Shoplifting.
Authors: Gary S. Solomon/Joseph B. Ray, State University, New York, Albany; Journal of Clinical Psychology; 1984; Vol. 40(4) p. 1075-1077.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Identified 8 most common irrational beliefs of shoplifters in West Texas.
- If I am careful and smart, I will not get caught.
- Even if I do get caught, I will not be turned in and prosecuted.
- Even if I am prosecuted, the punishment will not be severe.
- The merchants deserve what they get.
- Everybody, at some time or another, has shoplifted; therefore it’s ok for me to do it.
- Shoplifting is not a major crime.
- I must have the item I want to shoplift or if I want it, I should have it.
- It is okay to shoplift because the merchants expect it.

45. Shoplifting in Middle America: Patterns & Motivational Correlates.
Author: Richard H. Moore, Southern Illinois U, Center for the Study of Crime Delinquency & Corrections, Carbondale, IL; International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; 1984; Vol. 28(1); p. 53-64.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Among 300 shoplifters aged 16-73, 67.6% reported weekly shoplifting.
b. Character defects (personality disorders) were the predominant form of pathology found.
c. Mental illness was distributed equally between genders, but nearly twice as many females were experiencing psychological stressors.
d. Suggested intervention is short-term counseling followed by education which encourages offenders to acknowledge crime and consequences.

46. An Observational Study Of Shoplifting.
Author: Abigail Buckle/David P. Farrington, U Cambridge, Inst. Of Criminology, England; Jan. 1984; Vol. 24(1); p. 63-73.

Findings or conclusions:

a. 1.8% of store customers followed at random stole at least one item.
b. Shoplifting was most frequent among customers over age 55.
c. The probability of a shoplifting incident leading to an apprehension and arrest appeared to be less than 1%.

47. Shoplifting: Is There A Specific Psychiatric Syndrome?
Authors: John M. Bradford/Rufino Balmaceda, Royal Ottowa Hospital Canada; Canadian Journal of Psychiatry; 1983; Vol. 28(4) p. 248-254.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Primary psychiatric diagnosis:
- 42% depressive neurosis
- 12% organic brain syndrome
- 8% manic depressive illness
- 8% transient situational disturbance
- 8% personality disorder
- 8% alcoholism
86% total
b. A high level of psychosocial stress antedating the shoplifting behavior was a significant finding.

48. Shoplifting: An Occasional Crime Of the Moral Majority.
Authors: Will Cupchik/J. Don Atcheson, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Canada; Bulletin of The American Academy Of Psychiatry & The Law; 1983; Vol. 11(4); p. 343-354.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Stress precedes shoplifting.
b. All patients at least moderately depressed.
c. Shoplifting is believed to be an unconscious substitute for loss; offenders feeling that they have been unfairly deprived.

49. Factors Associated With Illegal Drug Use In Rural Georgia.
Authors: Ted L. Napier/Douglas C. Bachtel/Michael V. Carter, Ohio State University, Columbus; Journal of Drug Education; 1983; Vol. 13(2) p. 119- 140.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Teenage drug users more frequently engage in shoplifting.
b. Treatment and prevention programs need to address social and family issues.

50. Shoplifting: An Expression of Revenge And Restitution.
Authors: Anna Ornstein/Cheryl Gropper/Janice Z. Bogner, University Cincinnati; Annual Of Psychoanalysis; 1983; Vol. 11; p. 311-331.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Precipitating experience was either a narcissistic injury or a loss of self object.
b. Shoplifting represents an active mastery of childhood humiliation which was passively endured.
c. Shoplifting often accompanied by a sense of triumph and entitlement.
d. Emergency psychological treatment should attempt to reestablish a sense of cohesion in a fragmentation- prone self.
e. Affects of arrest motivated therapeutic engagement.

51. College Shoplifters: Rebuttal of Beck & McIntyre.
Author: Richard H. Moore, Southern Illinois U Carbondale, IL; Psychological Reports; Dec. 1983; Vol. 53(3); p. 1111-1116.

52. Management of Compulsive Shoplifting Through Covert Sensitization.
Authors: Janel Gauthier/Denise Pellerin, University, Laval, Quebec, Canada; Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry; 1982; Vol. 13(1); p. 73-75.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Woman, 30, compulsive shoplifter for 4 years.
b. No need to steal. A lot of guilt.
c. Five prior convictions for shoplifting.
d. Severe feelings of helplessness and depression.
e. Thought-stopping treatment ineffective.
f. Covert sensitization (imagining various aversive consequences) very effective.

53. A Study On The Daily Life Of Juveniles Committing A Shoplifting.
Author: Ayako Uchiyama; Reports of the National Research Institute Of Police Science, Japan; Dec. 1982; Vol. 23(2) p. 166-180.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Among 697 juvenile shoplifters, delinquents and non-delinquents had similar backgrounds.
b. Delinquents were more dependent on their parents and more susceptible to peer pressure.

54. Shoplifting.
Author: T. C. Gibbens; British Journal of Psychiatry; Apr. 1981; Vol. 138;
p. 346-347.

55. Assessment of Short-Term Treatment Groups With Adjudicated First Offender Shoplifters.
Authors: Dan W. Edwards/George A. Roundtree, Louisianna State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Journal of Offender Counseling, Services & Rehabilitation; 1981; Vol. 6(1-2); p. 89-102.

Findings or conclusions:

a. 8 weekly, 1 ½ hour group therapy sessions administered to first- offender shoplifters.
b. No significant differences after therapy as measured by ego strength scale of MMPI. One-way analysis of variance comparing experimental and control groups on pre-test and post-test insignificant.
c. No difference in re-arrest statistics after 90 days.
d. Could not verify that group therapy reduced the incidence of unlawful behavior.

56. Melancholia & Kleptomania.
Authors: Emilio Ramelli/Giorgio Mapelli, U Ferrara Psychiatric Clinic, Italy; Acta Psychiatrica Belgica; Jan-Feb. 1979; Vol. 79(1); p. 56-74.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Case of a 51 year old woman of well-to-do economic condition caught shoplifting during an attack of depression.
b. Melancholic dysthymia seemed well supported as a diagnosis.

57. The Use of Self-Control Procedures In The Treatment of Chronic Shoplifting.
Authors: Robert T. Kurlychek/Kenneth P. Morganstern, Lane County Adult Corrections, Eugene, OR; Corrective & Social Psychiatry & Journal of Behavior Technology, Methods & Therapy; 1978; Vol. 24(2); p. 86-87.

Findings or conclusions:

a. 39 year old married woman, mother of three.
b. Shoplifting the only excitement in her life.
c. A 10 week program aimed at providing assertiveness training and improving social control proved completely effective.
d. Behavioral self-control techniques can be effective.
e. Positive reinforcement for alternative behaviors can be effective.

58. Shoplifting: An Ordinary Crime?
Authors: Florez J. Arboleda/Helen Durie/John Costello, Calgary General Hospital, Canada; International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; 1977; Vol. 21 (3); p. 201-207.

Findings or conclusions:

a. To offenders, shoplifting not perceived as stealing, but simply justified “payback”.
b. Passive-aggressive tendencies and feelings of being neglected or rejected.
c. Family or financial stress frequently present.
d. The symbolic motivation of shoplifting is a retaliatory, hostile striking back, which provides temporary relief of stress.

59. MMPI Patterns of Shoplifters Within A College Population.
Authors: Ester A. Beck/Sherwood C. McIntyre, Auburn University; Psychological Reports; 1977; Vol. 41(3) PT2); p. 1035-1040.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Chronic shoplifters classified as maladjusted with psychopathic tendencies.
b. Males who shoplifted only once believed to be passive, immature, hostile individuals with somatic and interpersonal sensitivities and feminine interests.
c. Females who shoplifted only once were similar to chronic shoplifters regarding anti-establishment attitudes and masculine orientation, but somatic anxieties and depression characterized them as individuals who turned inward upon themselves rather than overtly against others.

60. System Specifics in Offender Therapy.
Authors: William Gray/Lucille R. Gray, Malden Court Clinic, MA; International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology; 1977; Vol. 22(1); p. 56-67.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Shoplifting can occur in women as a result of unresolved father- daughter relationship.

61. Thefts Without Motive Of Gain As A Psychopathologic Syndrome.
Authors: B. Pauleikhoff/D. Hoffmann, Wesfalische Wilhelm's University, Munster Nervenklinik, W. Germany; Fortschritte Der Neurologie, Psychiatrie Und Ihrer Grenzgebiete; 1975; Vol. 43(5); p. 254-271.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Shoplifters who apparently act without motive or gain are individuals characterized by marital difficulties, sexual frustration, depression, physical and mental exhaustion, aggressive and suicidal tendencies. Called “Psychopathological Syndrome”.

62. Shoplifting.
Authors: Ann W. Appelbaum/Herbert Klemmer, Menninger Perspective; 1974; Vol. 5(3); p. 16-19.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Surveys social and psychological factors in shoplifting.
b. Social causes include societal emphasis on competition, poverty and rebellion against social norms.
c. Treatment of children through parents.
d. Teenagers often respond better to peers.

63. Shoplifting Behaviors, College Students, and Assessment On The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the K.D. Proneness Scale.
Author: Ester A. Beck, Auburn University; Dissertation Abstracts International; 1974; Vol. 34(7B); p. 3485.

Findings or conclusions:

a. The personality of the chronic shoplifter college student differs from non-shoplifters.
b. Chronic shoplifters were found to be hostile, deceitful, impulsive, high energy level, emotionally shallow.

64. A Comparison Of Shoplifters and Non-Shoplifters: A Study of Student Self-Concepts.
Author: Janie S. Beers, University Maryland; Dissertation Abstracts International; 1973; Vol. 34(7-B); p. 3455-3456.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Shoplifters have lower self-concepts in regard to their moral-ethical selves than non-shoplifters.
b. Shoplifting significantly related to:

- Belief in favorable attitude of peers
- Belief that shoplifting is justified
- Belief in anti-establishment values

65. Suicide In Psychiatric Patients: Comparative Study.
Author: Birgitta Rorsman, University, Lund, Sweden; Social Psychiatry; 1973; Vol. 8(2); p 55p-66.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Shoplifting preceded suicide attempt in 2 of 45 suicide psychiatric patients.

66. Emotional Aspects of Shoplifting.
Author: Donald H. Russell, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Psychiatric Annals; 1973; Vol. 3(5); p. 77-86.

Findings or conclusions:

a. Article presents 5 sample cases exploring the psychological motives behind shoplifting.
b. Shoplifting an expression or symptom of emotional problems, particularly related to early deprivation and feelings of unfulfillment.

67. Mental Health Aspects of Shoplifting.
Authors: T. C. Gibbens/Clare Palmer/Joyce Prince, Institute of Psychiatry, London, England; British Medical Journal; 1971; Vol. 3(5775); p. 612-615.

Findings and conclusions:

a. The rate of shoplifting for women in mental hospitals is 3 times higher than the rate of general hospital admissions.
b. Depression and mental stress often precede shoplifting incidents.
c. Middle-aged recidivists seem to feel that 1st conviction ruined their reputation for life.